Policy, research and reflections on the delivery of medical education. Jump straight to recommended reads from recent research.
Outcomes for graduates pdf (July 2015)
Outcomes for graduates (originally published in Tomorrow’s Doctors) sets out the knowledge, skills and behaviours that new UK medical graduates must be able to show. Read more
The state of medical education and practice in the UK (GMC, November 2015)
The GMC's fifth annual report sets out what is happening in the education and practice of doctors, and considers some of the challenges facing the medical profession. Read more
National Health Executive
Independent management magazine for the whole health sector.
Higher education: students at the heart of the system (Department of Business, Innovation & Skills, June 2011, Cm 8122)
Aspire: International Recognition of Excellence in Education
A programme that recognises international excellence in education in a medical, dental or veterinary school.
Jump to view recommended reads from:
- It's a story, not a study: writing an effective research paper
Lingard, Lorelei & Watling, Chris. 2016. Academic Medicine, Volume 91 - Issue 12 - p e12
One-page article on writing an effective research paper.
- Conceptual frameworks to guide research and development (R&D) in health professions education
Bordage, Georges, Lineberry, Matthew, Yudkowsky, Rachel. 2016. Academic Medicine Volume 91 - Issue 12 - p e2
Conceptual frameworks (CFs) are ways of thinking about a problem or question, and representing how complex things work. This short one page summary is very helpful and succinct.
- Flipping the classroom: is it worth the bother?
James Boyle*, Nathaniel Quail, Xui Ying Loo and Aileen Linn, 2017. The Clinical Teacher, Vol 14, Issue 2, pp 137-8, April
Abstract: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/tct.12533/abstract [contact the Library for full-text]
This describes Glasgow's move towards flipped classroom; not a long read but pragmatic and identifies challenges.
- Tolerating uncertainty — the next medical revolution?
Arabella L. Simpkin & and Richard M. Schwartzstein. 2016. New England Journal of Medicine 375:1713-17
Uncertainty in medical practice? How do we think about training our learners to cope with “continually having to make decisions on the basis of imperfect data and limited knowledge.
- Scholarly conversations in medical education
Bridget C. O’Brien, Win May and Tanya Horsley. 2016. Academic Medicine, Vol. 91, No. 11 / November 2016 Supplement
RIME – research in Medical Education – is an annual training conference. Academic Medicine have published this supplement in which they outline the “conversations” – the areas of discussion, and the perspectives of recognised leaders in the field. The topics they discussed were 1. Curriculum reform 2. Duty Hours restriction 3. Learner well-being 4. Innovations in teaching and assessment 5. Self- regulated learning and 6. Learning environment. The Table is a helpful summary of current papers, what questions were addressed, and the purpose and underlying research methods.
- The relationship between academic assessment and psychological distress among medical students: a systematic review
Lyndon MP, Strom JM, Alyami HM, Yu TC, Wilson NC, Singh PP, Lemanu DP, Yielder J, Hill AG. Perspectives in Medical Education. 2014 Dec;3(6):405-18
- Medical student mental health: culture, environment, and the need for change
Stuart J. Slavin, MD,MEd. JAMA December 6, 2016 Volume 316, Number 21 2195
Abstract: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2589328 [to view the full-text sign in with NHS OpenAthens (how to get an Athens account) or request article from the library]
- Medical students find assessments stressful. Of course….but what do we do about it?
Vicki R. LeBlancc. Perspectives in Medical Education. 2014 Dec; 3(6): 401–404. Published online 2014 Dec 10. doi: 10.1007/s40037-014-0152-x
- Prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation among medical students: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Lisa S. Rotenstein, BA; Marco A. Ramos, MPhil; Matthew Torre, MD; J. Bradley Segal, BA, BS; Michael J. Peluso, MD, MPhil; Constance Guille, MD, MS; Srijan Sen, MD, PhD; Douglas A. Mata, MD, MPH. JAMA. 2016;316(21):2214-2236. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.17324
Abstract: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27923088 [to view the full-text sign in with NHS OpenAthens (how to get an Athens account) or request article from the library]
- Preceptor teaching tips in longitudinal clerkships [preview article; contact Library for full-text]
Latessa, R, Schmitt, A, Beaty, N, Buie, S, and Ray, R. 2016 The Clinical Teacher, 13: 213–218
In longitudinal integrated clerkships ( LIC s), the continuous “preceptor” (teacher / supervisor / mentor…) and student relationship over time creates opportunities for more in-depth teaching approaches than shorter attachments allow. They describe and identify student perceptions of the most effective teaching practices and develop tips for LICPs.
- Undertaking and reporting qualitative research [preview article; contact Library for full-text]
Joanna Tai, J and Ajjawi, R; 2016 The Clinical Teacher, 13: 175–182
Qualitative research encompasses a range of methods and methodologies, some of which use opaque language. Qualitative research can be used to reframe educational problems and to promote nuanced understanding of educational phenomena, This is a very useful clearly written article in The Clinical Teacher that unpacks qualitative research in an accessible format.
- "Could you wait a second?" [abstract only; sign in with NHS OpenAthens for the full-text (how to get an Athens account) or request from the library]
Pal. K 2016 The Lancet Volume 387, No. 10031, p1900–1901, 7 May
This perspective in The Lancet is such a powerful example of the complexity of consultations – whilst in primary care , the subject matter could have arisen in any encounter. Of possible value for teaching?
- The medical licensing examination debate [abstract only; contact Library for full-text]
Archer, J, Lynn, N, Coombes, L, Roberts, M, Gale, T, Regan de Bere, S 2016 Regulation & Governance 25 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/rego.12118
The GMC is intending to implement this by 2021. They commissioned a literature review of international practice – this is worth reading to inform the debate.
- A3 Dimensional Model of Bloom's Taxonomy
- The 'screw it' moment in medical education
An article on the issue of students who are”hoop jumping” rather than learning , and what we / our courses do to drive this.
- Parting the clouds: three professionalism frameworks in medical education
Irby, DM, Hamstra, S 2016 Academic Medicine, 26 April doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001190
Talks about the 3 dominant frameworks associated with professionalism in medical education . 1. Virtue based (development of moral character and reasoning, compassion 2. Behaviour based (milestones and competencies) 3. Identity formation (identity development within a community of practice).
- The case of the disappearing teaspoons: longitudinal cohort study of the displacement of teaspoons in an Australian research institute
Lim,M, Hellard, ME, Aitken, CA 2005 BMJ. Dec 24; 331(7531): 1498–1500.
Excellent teaching resource when talking about study design. randomisation, questionnaire alongside measurements, all covered!
- Mindless evaluations by students and teachers [contact Library for full-text]
Gibson, C. 2015 Medical Education 49 (9) 850–858
A commentary on how we should be moving forward from the impression that student evaluations of teaching are a 'fundamental tenet of good teaching practice'.
- The Science of Learning [open access]
Deans for Impact, Austin Texas, 2015.
Summarises the existing research from cognitive science related to how students learn and connects this research to its practical implications for teaching and learning. This is framed around six key questions about learning:
1. How do students understand new ideas?
2. How do students learn and retain new information?
3. How do students solve problems?
4. How does learning transfer to new situations?
5. What motivates students to learn?
6. What are some common misconceptions about how students think and learn?
- Is reflective ability associated with professionalism lapses during medical school? [open access]
Hoffman L.A, Shew R.L., Vu T.R., Brokaw, J.J., Frankel R.M. 2016 Academic Medicine, publ, online 12 Jan 2016.
Learning to reflect on one’s experiences is a critical component of professional identity formation and of professionalism. This study explored
the association between reflective ability and professionalism lapses among medical students.
- How can academic medical centers and teaching hospitals address the social determinants of health? [open access]
Fair, Malika, Mallery, T. A. 2016 Academic Medicine, vol. 91, No. 3 p 443.
Gives some examples of how US 'academic health centres' i.e.. universities with medical schools are addressing the social determinants of health.
- Alternative framings, countervailing visions: locating the “P” in professional identity formation [open access]
Hafferty, F et al. 2016 Academic Medicine 91:171–174.
Fred Hafferty has reviewed literature from two other disciplines (military and organisational management) and writes challengingly 'medical educators must attend to socializing trainees to a professional group identity while at the same time producing health care professionals who retain the capacity to resist the bureaucratic application of standardized solutions to contemporary problems. Educators must thus strive to identify the skills, knowledge, and attitudes necessary that will allow physicians-qua-professionals to function as a quasi-subversive work force and to disrupt the very system that helped to shape their identity, so that they may fulfil their mission to patients'. In the same journal Cruess et al redesign Millers pyramid to include professional identity formation.
- Imposter Syndrome [graphic]
David Whittaker, 2015
- Association between personality traits and future choice of specialisation among Swedish doctors: a cross-sectional study [abstract only; sign in with NHS OpenAthens for the full-text (how to get an Athens account) or request from the library]
Bexelius, T.S. et al 2016 Postgraduate Medical Journal doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133478, publ. online first 10 Feb 2016.
Longitudinal study from Sweden using the “big 5” inventory. Medical specialties were categorised as primary care, psychiatry, internal medicine and surgical and hospital service specialties. Surgeons scored lower in agreeableness than physicians in primary care, internal medicine and hospital services. Psychiatrists and hospital service physicians showed lower conscientiousness compared with surgeons.
- Self-reported preparedness for clinical work has increased among recent cohorts of UK-trained first-year doctors [abstract only; sign in with NHS OpenAthens for the full-text (how to get an Athens account) or request from the library]
Lachish, S., Goldacre, M. J., Lambert, T. 2016 Postgraduate Medical Journal doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133478, publ. online first 10 Feb 2016.
- Medical Education: January and February 2016 [view contents list; contact Library for full-text]
National licensing examination: there are some excellent commentaries /articles from Brian Jolly , Lambert Schuwirth, and Swanson/ Roberts in the January issue. Social accountability and PPI: see DeBere and Nunn’s article on a pedagogy for PPI and their framework diagrams for levels of engagement
- Career progression of men and women doctors in the UK NHS: a questionnaire study of the UK medical qualifiers of 1993 in 2010/2011 [open access]
Svirko, E., Lambert T.W. & Goldacre M.J. 2014. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Open; 5(11) 1–9 (7 November 2014) DOI: 10.1177/2054270414554050
- Factors influencing junior doctors’ choices of future specialty: trends over time and demographics based on results from UK national surveys [open access]
Smith, F, Lambert T.W., and Goldacre M.J. 2015. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine vol. 108(10) 396–405 DOI: 10.1177/0141076815599674. Publ. online 2 October 2015.
- Doctors’ enjoyment of their work and satisfaction with time available for leisure: UK time trend questionnaire-based study [open access]
Surman, G, Lambert, T.W., Goldacre M. 2015 Postgraduate Medical Journal 2016;0:1–7. doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133743, publ. 18 Jan 2016.
- The Learning Styles Myth is thriving in higher education [open access]
Newton P. 2015. Frontiers in Psychology 6:1908 doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01908
This review captures what an educator would encounter if they were to search for 'learning styles', and that 'The overwhelming majority (89%) of recent research papers, listed in the ERIC and PubMed research databases, implicitly or directly endorse the use of Learning Styles in Higher Education'. The authors of this paper make a point that it is important to recognise that educators whilst trying to look for an evidence base, could present a strongly misleading view that there is 'robust' evidence and state the 'potentially negative consequences for students and for the field.
- ‘I don’t have time’: issues of fragmentation, prioritisation and motivation for education scholarship among medical faculty [abstract only; contact Library for full-text]
Zibrowski, Elaine M; Weston, Walter Wayne; & Goldszmidt, Mark A. 2008. Medical Education 42: 872–878
An older paper ... [that] makes the point that we are all time pressured, and that even in those who have an interest in medical education, negligible amount of time is devoted to educational scholarship – and thus as educational leads we should look to support this development in our teachers.
- Assessment at UK medical schools varies substantially in volume, type and intensity and correlates with postgraduate attainment [open access]
Devine, Oliver P, Harborne, Andrew C. & McManus, I.C. 2015. BMC Medical Education, 15:146
UKMLA (UK Medical Licensing Assessment) is coming. This paper from the McManus group, in which they evidence within the UK medical schools 'substantial differences in the volume, format and intensity of undergraduate assessment', and state that 'These findings suggest a potential for differences in the reliability of detecting poorly performing students, or differences in identifying and stratifying academically equivalent students for ranking in the Foundation Programme Application System (FPAS). Furthermore, these differences appear to directly correlate with performance in postgraduate examinations. Taken together, our findings highlight highly variable local assessment procedures that warrant further investigation to establish their potential impact on students'.
- UKMLA: American dream or nightmare? [letter to the editor: contact Library for full-text]
Allawi, Layan; Ali, Sarah; Hassan, Farida & Sohrabi, Fareeda. 2015. Letter printed in Medical Teacher, 11 Nov: 1. [Epub ahead of print]
- Twelve tips for early career medical educators [abstract only; contact Library for full-text]
Cristancho, Sayra & Varpio, Lara. 2015. Medical Teacher, Oct 22:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]
Useful for colleagues looking to make medical education a substantive part of their future career.
- Twelve tips for assessment psychometrics [abstract only; contact Library for full-text]
Coombes, Lee; Roberts, Martin; Zahra, Daniel; & Burr, Steven. 2015. Medical Teacher, Oct 16:1-5. [Epub ahead of print]
- Student experiences of multiple flipped courses [abstract only; contact Library for full-text]
Mattick, Karen. 2015. The Clinical Teacher, 12 (6): 432–435
The Clinical Teacher has summaries of recent papers (Digest). The most recent Digest has valuable summaries from Karen Mattick on papers on 'Flipped classrooms' and 'Students transitions after longitudinal clinical placements'.
- Student Motivation: Focusing on Excellence [open access]
This is a blog post from The Huffington Post. Student engagement and motivation are probably the greatest challenges that face formal education today. Ask any teacher and they will agree that motivated students are easier to teach, are more engaged, and experience higher levels of achievement. So, why aren't more students motivated and why haven't we worked out how to get them motivated?
- Education Theory for the #MedEd Clinician [open access]
Blog post from the International Clinician Educators Network from 26 June 2015. Lots of good references and links to key educational theory papers.
- Being boring [open access]
DeFilippis, Ersilia, September 2015. Academic Medicine, 90 (9), p 1223.
This is a short piece that might be a useful prompt for student discussion: the human side of a “routine” case.
- “…I know not…” Humility and respect: core values in medical education [abstract only; contact Library for full-text]
Gruppen, Larry D. 2014. Medical Education, 48 (1), pp 53-58.
Gruppen paper on humility and respect – a thoughtful paper on the “original Hippocratic oath”, and embedding these values within the core purpose of professional practice, but how does it relate to the medical education community? How do these values relate to medical educational scholarship and practice – knowing vs not knowing, the value of theory, and obstacles preventing expressing these values.
- Supervisor or mentor: is there a difference? Implications for paediatric practice [Log in with Athens]
Mellon, Andrew, and Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah. 2015. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 100:873–878.
Review in ADC on what is the literature around mentorship, supervision and coaching – and do learners need all 3?
- Tackling medical student stress: beyond individual resilience [open access]
Watling, Chris. 2015. Perspectives in Medical Education, 4 (3), pp 105-6.
Resilience – Chris Watling has written an excellent paper on resilience. It is published in a new(ish) on-line journal that I rate highly, managed by the Dutch Med Ed Association.
- Without anyone's permission: The open web and online learning [pdf]
What on earth are MOOCS doing for us – are they really changing the access to and process of learning – and how should we think about web and resources. Read this blog from Michael Rowe (physio educationalist with a PhD in technology enhanced learning) .
- te@chthought: 50 Alternatives to Lecturing
A useful website for ideas / stimulation re lecturing.
- Internet-based medical education: a realist review of what works, for whom and in what circumstances [open access]
Wong, Geoff, Greenhalgh, Trisha and Pawson, Ray. 2010. BMC Medical Education, 10:12
- Boredom in the lecture theatre: an investigation into the contributors, moderators and outcomes of boredom amongst university students [abstract only; contact Library for full-text]
Mann, Sandi and Robinson, Andrew. 2009. British Educational Research Journal Vol. 35, No. 2, April, pp. 243–258
- How Do I Get My Students Over Their Alternative Conceptions (Misconceptions) for Learning? Removing barriers to aid in the development of the student [open access]
Lucariello, Joan (City University of New York), with Naff, David (Virginia Commonwealth University). 2015. American Psychological Association.
- Learn, See, Practice, Prove, Do, Maintain: An Evidence-Based Pedagogical Framework for Procedural Skill Training in Medicine [abstract only; contact Library for full-text] Sawyer, T. et al. April 2015 [Pre-print] Academic Medicine [Online]
- Professional Identity (Trans)Formation in Medical Education: Reflection, Relationship, Resilience [open access]
Wald, Hedy S. 2015. Academic Medicine, Vol. 90, No. 6 / June 2015, pp.701-706
- Medical Schools Can Encourage Students’ Interest in Family Medicine [open access]
Rohan-Minjares, Felisha, Alfero, Charles and Kaufman, Arthur. 2015. Academic Medicine: Vol 90, (5), pp. 553-555
- Competency-Based Education: Milestones or Millstones? [open access]
Norman, Geoff, Norcini, John; Bordage, Georges. 2014. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, March.
- Twelve tips for ‘‘flipping’’ the classroom [abstract only; request full text from library]
Moffett, Jennifer. 2015. Medical Teacher, 37: 331–336
- How we flipped the medical classroom [abstract only; request full text from library]
Sharma, Neel et al. 2015. Medical Teacher, 37: 327–330
- Qualitative and quantitative: the yin and the yang or the light and the dark sides of medical education? [open access]
McKinley, Robert K. 2015. Editorial, Perspectives on Medical Education February 2015, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 1-3,
- 7 steps to enhancing large group teaching [open access]
Plymouth University: Dept of Teaching and Learning, 2014
- Faking it or hating it: can reflective practice be forced? [Abstract only; request full text from library]
Hobbs, Valerie. 2007. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives Vol 8 (3)
- The learning culture in third year clerkships: medical students' perceptions through a coaching lens [summary]
Rosenkrans, Daniel J et al. March 2015. MedEdWorld On-line
- The ritual of grading students in the workplace: what does a grade actually mean? [open access]
Olle Ten Cate, March 2015 MedEdWorld On-line